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汉英翻译中的词类转换

时间:2017-03-07 09:10来源:未知 作者:admin 点击:
p>在汉英翻译中可进行各类词类的转换,例如: 汉语动词转换成英语名词、形容词、介词;汉语形容词或副词转换成英语名词;汉语名词转换成英语动词等等。个中,汉语动词转换成英语
p>在汉英翻译中可进行各类词类的转换,例如: 汉语动词转换成英语名词、形容词、介词;汉语形容词或副词转换成英语名词;汉语名词转换成英语动词等等。个中,汉语动词转换成英语抽象名词尤为广泛。高校常用的翻译教材,如张培基、吕瑞昌、冯庆华等编撰的翻译教材均将这种转换列在第一位。请看以下各例:

例1. 中国当局承诺纰谬无核国度应用核兵器。

如不留意词性转换,译文可能是:
The Chinese government undertakes not to use (that it will not use) nuclear weapons against non-nuclear countries.
这种译文显得有些白话化,不敷稳重。不如改用抽象名词non-use:
The Chinese government undertakes non-use of nuclear weapons against non-nuclear countries.

例2. 禁制任何叛国、决裂国度、鼓动兵变及窃取国度机密的行动。

译文一:To prohibit any act of treason, acts to split the country, incite rebellion and steal secrets.
译文二:To prohibit any act of treason, secession, sedition and theft of state secrets.

以上译文一应用 split , incite, steal 等动词固然语义精确,但似乎不敷稳重。译文二应用抽象名词,因而显得文字严谨,合适正式司法条则的风格。

例3. 技巧引进合同应当订明下列事项:引进技巧的保密义务,改进技巧的归属和分享。

译文一:Provisions on the obligation to keep confidential the imported technology, and ownership of the right to copy any improvements made to the technology.
译文二:Provisions on the confidentiality obligation as regards the imported technology, and ownership of the right to copy any improvements made to the technology.

对于"保密"这一动作译文一应用响应的动词 keeping confidential,南京翻译公司致力于口译、笔译、同传设备租赁、同声传译、会议策划及高级翻译人才,显得过于白话化。译文二转用英语抽象名词confidentiality,在司法文件中显得较为得体。

例4. 此次十三届八中全会开得好。

译文一:The recent Eighth Plenary Session of the Thirteen Central Committee was a successful meeting.
译文二:The recent Eighth Plenary Session of the 13th CPC Central Committee was a success.

会"开得好"很少有人直译为动词 was well conducted。
以上译文一运器具体名词 a successful meeting 比较常见;译文二则将其浓缩为一个名词 success,更为简洁。

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